THE ISLAND OF FUNDÃO AND ITS SURROUNDINGS – GEOGRAPHICAL EVOLUTION UNDER A HISTORICALCARTOGRAPHIC APPROACH Paulo Márcio Leal de Menezes Vanessa Ferraz Godoy Verônica Martins Goulart Lepore Manoel do Couto Fernandes Federal University of Rio de Janeiro [email protected] The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of Fundão Island area, located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, under a cartographic approach, showing the main urban landscape transformations, occurred in the Island and in its surroundings, due to antropic occupation, as well as those related to the several landfills, hill dismounts and land use changing. The study area is defined by Fundão Island, which contains the Universitary Campus (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and others researcher centers), Ponta do Caju, Complex of Maré in the continent, and Ponta do Galeão, in Governador Island. There was eight islands constituting the insular complex, and it was initially submitted to a landfill process, due to the sanitary spilling of the city, in one island of the archipelago, from 1894 to 1953. The landfill of all insular complex to generate the Universitary Island was the second greatest changing, occurred between 1948 and 1951. Other changes on the surroundings transformed the Ponta do Caju, which was a fishing dock, in a shipbuilding area; the area of Ponta do Galeão, was completely modified by the construction of the international airport, and the area of Maré complex, by irregular occupation (favela). The construction of Red Line road, cutting off the space, ended until this moment, the changes, giving the current configuration to the study area. The cartographic support to the evolution was given by a comparative study of systematic and cadastral mapping existent of the area, in 1:50.000 and larger scales. The applied methodology involves digital map conversion, allowing establishing maps in raster and vectorial form, as well as transformations of map projections and geodetic systems. It was used maps created between 1922 and 1998, and all the cartographic information went compatible to a unique map projection, UTM, in SAD69 geodetic system. In that way were generated maps with the visualization of the changes in each period, as well as, the relative quantifications of landfills, coast line and associated landscape changes. The applied methodology of this research can be applied to other areas, such as to Guanabara Bay coast line and municipal districts. The maps of landscape evolution will be presented as results of the research. 1–INTRODUCTION The Island of Fundão has in current days a great importance to the city of Rio de Janeiro. On one side it has an expressive part of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with the Centers of Technology, Letters, Arts, Mathematics and Nature, as well as Health. Others Research Centers , CENPES of PETROBRAS, in expansion at this moment, as well as of ELETROBRAS, NUCLEBRAS and Mineralogy, defining a pole of high technology to the country. The integration of the research centers with the University is accomplished in practically all knowledge areas. Its surrounds is represented by the continental areas, defined for the Complexo da Maré and Ponta do Caju, Ilha do Governador and Guanabara Bay around it, all of them important for the geographical evolution study. The landscape changing are expressive, characterizing, mainly starting from the end of the first quartile of the 20th century, violent changes not only on landscape, but also on environment and in the evolution of the antropic occupation, promoting disordered occupations (favela processes), which influences enough the whole study area. The aim of this paper is present the study of the evolution of the area, through a vision obtained by the cartography of the area. The study period will be between 1930 and 2004, however it will be presented some previous facts, which also had influences in its evolution. 1.1 Study Area The area to be studied will be framed by the established coordinates by the table 1 Table 1–Framing of study area Point E (UTM) N (UTM) Latitude Longitud 1 678000 7468000 -22o 53’ 10.9” -43o 15’ 53.1” 2 678000 7476000 -22o 48’ 50.9” -43o 15’ 56.4” 3 686000 7476000 -22o 48’ 47.8” -43o 11’ 15.9” 4 686000 7468000 -22o 53’ 07.8” -43o 11’ 12.4” This area includes the four described areas, which will be object of the evolutionary study: Ponta do Galeão, Complexo da Maré, Ilha Universitária and Ponta do Caju. Figure 1, presents the areas. Figure 1 – Location of the study areas–Source IPP–Grocery store of Data The area includes the following neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro: Cidade Universitária, Caju, Galeão (a small area) and Maré. Some spaces from the neighborhoods of Penha, Ramos, Olaria and Bonsucesso will be approached by the research. Relating to administrative areas, the research embraces to Porto I, XX Ilha do Governador, XXX Maré, X Ramos and XI Penha. 1.2 – Some History The study area comes as one of the largest transformations areas, due to the several landfills, occupations and some dismounts. But mainly due to the landfills, the environment was quite changed, characterizing in some places impacts and degradations that affect not only local influence, but alsohaving a wide influence area. The area of the Ilha Universitária was constituted by eight small islands Fundão, Baiacú, Cabrasts, Pindaí do Ferreira, Pindaí do França, Catalão, Bom Jesus and Sapucaia,, which, between 1949 and 1952, were land filled and interlinked, totaling a surface of 5,9 million square meters. In 1953, the resulting island of the coalition of the eight islands archipelago was named as Island of the Academical City of University of Brazil. Part of the landfill was done with a disassembling of an hill in the Island of Fundão and sand dredged of the bottom of the bay. Bom Jesus' Island, the biggest had some buildings, having sheltered the Church of Bom Jesus of the Column, built in 1703. Later it had a convent, transformed in one Asylum of the Disable persons of the Paraguay War and a Military Prison. This was not the first impact on the study area. The Island of Sapucaia was used, since the 19th century, as garbage collector of the city. In 1876, an origin French, Aleixo Gary signed a contract for collection and garbage deposit, in Island of Sapucaia, that lasted long up to 1891. In 1892 the company was extinguished, however the collection and deposit was lasted long until the decade of 1950. It was still incorporate garbage landfills in Ponta do Caju. The importance of the Garys for the urban cleaning of Rio de Janeiro, was such that the employees who worked with the garbage had, ever since, the name of garis, term also employed in other Brazilian cities. The Ponta do Caju, in turn, beyond also having being a garbage landfill, had been seing later, 1948-1953 and 1962-63 entirely disfigured by successive landfills, that had joined the Island of Pinheiros to the continent and having created a naval industrial complex, with some installed shipyards. Ponta do Galeão had also landfills, so to receive the International Airport of Rio de Janeiro (Galeão). Some transformations have occurred, and the last ones were done when Red Line Road was constructed, in 1992. The area of Maré had also big landfills, which had increased environmental problems. Initiating in the Saco da Gamboa, for the modernization and rectification of the Port of Rio, in 1905, all the mouth of the rivers Faria-Timbó was landfilled. Some lowlands which still existed in 1975, was landfilled. Pinheiros Island was joint to the continent. Two great landfill occurred, one in 1992, to Red Line Road construction and in 2003 with linking of Red and Yellow Lines Road to the Ilha Universitária. 2 - CARTOGRAPHY OF THE AREA Few were the maps which previously to the century XX allowed the observation of the studying area in bigger details. The great majority of the maps present the set of schematical form, many times not even showing its localization. The “Plain of la Baye et du Port de Rio Janeiro”, of 1751, shows with reasonable precision the Island of Bom Jesus (Frade or Hospício), well dislocated Sapucaia and Pinheiros, but it does not present the Islands of the Fundão and Cabras. The Ponta do Caju and the Island of Governador are presented with some deformations. From the first quartile of century XIX, all the set is represented in sufficiently necessary form. It is possible to distinguish with reasonable precision the original size of the Island of Sapucaia and after 1905, its size, already with the load of the landfill of the garbage of the city. The Cartography through photogrammetric processes, was only initiated with the Letter 1:50 000 of 1922. Previously only the topographical letters were carried through by the City hall of the Federal District. The mappings of 1935, 1957 and 1984 are also available, carried through in the scale 1:50 000. Effectively, an expressive mapping will only occur in 1975, with the accomplishment of the mapping of the Metropolitan Region, in 1:10 000. After this mapping, only in 1994, 1999 and in 2004, Rio de Janeiro was mapped with the execution of orthophotos and vectorial digital maps. In relation to the projective systems, only with the 1922 mapping, the association to a polyhedral system is established. This system is characterized by a gnomonic projection, whose projection center was defined in the Astronomical Observatory of Morro of Santo Antonio (Observatório do Morro de Santo Antônio), on 1880 Clarke ellipsoid. This ellipsoid served to the 1935 mapping, with the adoption of Gauss-Krüger Conformal Projection System In 1942, was adopted Gauss-Tardi system but it was used Hayford ellipsoid. In 1957, the Universal Transverse Mercator map projection was adopted, and Córrego Alegre geodetic system. The same system was adopted later with SAD-69 geodetic system. Currently, there has been having transformation for the SIRGAS 2000 geodetic system. 3 – METODOLOGY 3.1 – Analogical Digital Documents Transformation All analogical maps are rasterized in a 300 dpi resolution, to a graphical file in tif format. The raster is submitted to color correction, equalization and electronical repair, if needed. 3.2 –Raster Maps They are only submitted to the last steps of last process. 3.3 – Raster-Vector Transformation All raster maps are vectorized following this steps:: - Raster attached to a vector program, in a local coordinate system (0,0); - Defining vectorization on several layers. These layers are the same of database, such as coast line, hidrography, roads, streets and so on. - Correction, cleaning and validation of the map; - Topology creation; - Georreferencing process;. - Compatibilization of projections and geodetic systems; - Transformation to project scale; Use of satellite images medium and high resolution to update some database data, such as land use. 3.4 – Spatial Analyses Development of spatial analyses over the area. Estão previstas as seguintes análises: - Urban evolution landscape; - Phisycal landscape evolution; Both geographically and on time. - Digital elevation model development, with batimetry and altimetry; Other needed to complementary studies. 4 – CONCLUSIONS All maps are digitized, and all are transformed to SAD 69 UTM system. The cartographic support to the evolution was given by a comparative study of systematic and cadastral mapping existent of the area, in 1:50.000 and larger scales. The applied methodology involves digital map conversion, allowing establishing maps in raster and vectorial form, as well as transformations of map projections and geodetic systems. It was used maps created between 1922 and 1998, and all the cartographic information went compatible to a unique map projection, UTM, in SAD69 geodetic system. In that way were generated maps with the visualization of the changes in each period, as well as, the relative quantifications of landfills, coast line and associated landscape changes. The applied methodology of this research can be applied to other areas, such as to Guanabara Bay coast line and municipal districts. The maps of landscape evolution will be presented as results of the research. 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